Smarts – Wine Words

Acidity Acid is key to a wine’s balance.  There are a number of acids present in wine but the main ones are tartaric, malic and lactic.  The acidity in wine can give it a little zip, make it taste fresh, add some taste notes like green apple or that buttery quality of chardonnay, and even influence the color.
Alcohol Alcohol is the second largest component of wine and to find out how much is in there all you have to do is look at the label. What you’ll generally see is anywhere from 10 – 15%, but dessert wines and fortified wines like port go even higher. Alcohol gives the wine depth and mouthfeel. It seems to add weight to the wine that you can both taste and see.  When you taste higher alcohol wines there is a noticeable fullness to the sip and sometimes it might even seem a little hot. 
Appellation This is a defined and typically regulated area of geography in wine producing regions used to identify common practices and boundaries where grapes are grown.
AVA – American Viticultural Area Clusters of growing regions that truly gives more meaning and definition when it comes to the wine. Each exists because there are some shared characteristics of earth and sky, a confluence of soil and climate that lend distinctiveness to the grapes and wines. There are 230 AVAs in the US and if the AVA is on the label then 85% of the wine is from there.
Body Body is really about how the wine feels in your mouth and much of that has to so with how much alcohol the wine has and the grape variety as well as the wine making style. 
Botrytis Botrytis, the fungus that pierces the grape skin which leads to water evaporation and the concentration of sugars.  Sounds bad but tastes great when the wines are made, like the spectacular wines of Sauternes. Also known as “Noble Rot.”
Component Wine is made up of some key elements that are known as components – water, alcohol, sugar, acid and a bunch of magic beans called phenolics. 
Corked A fault in wine caused by “cork taint” from a chemical compound called TCA. It causes the wine to have a noticeable smell of mold, wet cardboard or, my favorite, old gym shoes! It is safe to drink but probably not enjoyable. Return the bottle.
Dry Dry wine typically contains less than 1% sugar. When the sugar is below our ability to taste it then the wine is considered Dry.
Estate Wine If it says “Estate” on the label it means the producer/winery must own or lease the vineyards providing the grapes.
Fermentation Fermentation is the conversion of grape sugars into alcohol through the action of yeast cells.
Fortified Wine Wine with additional alcohol, usually clear brandy or other spirits, added during fermentation. Common fortified wines are sherry, port and marsala. Alcohol levels are typically 18 – 20%.
Lees Lees are the sediments left over from fermentation, mostly the dead yeast cells. 
Legs Also known as Tears. The residue from the evaporation of alcohol in the wine in the glass which appear as visibly thicker yet translucent liquid on the inside of the glass. Slower moving legs indicates higher alcohol because alcohol is volatile and it evaporates faster that water.
Maceration Grape juice from red grapes isn’t red, it’s basically a clear liquid.  All the color for red wines comes from leaving this juice in contact with the red grape skins after they’re crushed and during the fermentation into wine. This is called maceration.
Macroclimate Refers to the climate across a broad wine growing region e.g. Napa Valley
Malolactic Fermentation Malolactic fermentation is a secondary process where the tart malic acid is converted into smoother lactic acid.  It’s a common practice for red wines but Chardonnay is usually the only white treated this way.  This results in the “buttery” taste description.  It gives it that big, more full bodied feel in your mouth.
Meritage If no one grape is 75% of the wine in the bottle then it has to be labeled simply Red Wine or White Wine – this is where you find branded, proprietary blends (example is Oracle from Miner), or may see the word Meritage, which signifies the use of the Bordeaux varieties and membership in an association with governing rules – each grape in the blend must be identified.
Mesoclimate Mesoclimate refers to the climate in a pretty small area, like a vineyard.  Climate is what happens over time, weather is what is basically happening now. There can be significant mesoclimate variation in parcels of vineyard land that are even right next to each other.
Microclimate Microclimate is even a smaller area than mesoclimate, even down to a few rows within a vineyard or down to a particular vine.
Mouthfeel The textural sensation of wine when tasted in the mouth. Often described in terms of weight, viscosity, astringency, smoothness, sharpness, etc.
Noble Rot “Noble Rot” is Botrytis, the fungus that pierces the grape skin which leads to water evaporation and the concentration of sugars.  Sounds bad but tastes great when the wines are made, like the spectacular wines of Sauternes.
Off Dry When there is some sweetness we can taste in the wine it is generally considered Off Dry and this can range considerably between styles and varieties due to the winemaking.
Phenolics These are the compounds that give wine everything from its color and the vibrancy of its taste, to longevity and age-worthiness.
Reserve In the US, Australia/New Zealand and South America, Reserve is not a regulated designation.  In the Old World there is broad European Union regulation of labeling which is then customized in each country. In Italy and Spain there is specific meaning to the term Riserva or Reserva based on the aging of the wine before it is released for sale. It is time focused. 
Residual Sugar When there is some sweetness we can taste then the wine is generally considered Off Dry and this can range considerably. This is known as the Residual Sugar and winemakers specifically make some wines to give us the little hint of sweetness that many folks like.
Single Vineyard You will frequently see the name of a specific vineyard on the label.This means the wine is a single vineyard or vineyard designated wine and, along with featuring the name on the label, there are other considerations that go along with it. If there is a vineyard name on the label then 95% of the grapes that made that wine have to be from that vineyard
Structure Structure is the balance between the components of the wine, the relationship between the alcohol, acids, sugars, tannins and other phenolics that you can taste.
Sulfites Refers to the sulfur dioxide added in the winemaking process to act as a preservative. Some sulfites also appear naturally as a by-product of fermentation. Winemakers add sulfur to preserve freshness and retard discoloration. This is a common practice in food production. There is no wine that is truly sulfite free although naturally occurring sulfites are typically found only in minuscule amounts.
Sur Lie Refers to leaving the wine on the lees to enhance flavor. This aging process is called sur lie in the French and it results in creating a fuller bodied and nicely drinking wine. This sur lie aging adds flavor and character to the wine that often is tasted as toasty, wheaty or creamy when you sip it.
Tannin Tannin is a phenolic from the skins and seeds of the grape giving red wine a noticeable astringent quality and is critical to aging. Tannin is also present as the result of oak barrel aging.
Tears Also known as Legs. The residue from the evaporation of alcohol in the wine in the glass which appear as visibly thicker yet translucent liquid on the inside of the glass. Slower moving legs indicates higher alcohol because alcohol is volatile and it evaporates faster that water.
Terroir Terroir is a French word pronounced tehr-wahr  and there is no direct translation into English. Terroir describes everything that is happening in, around, underneath, above and throughout the vineyard – the entire physical environment that impacts the grapes. 
Vintage The vintage year is the year that the grapes were grown, harvested and made into wine.